Books on Biological Determinism
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Lewontin, Richard C., Rose, Steven & Kamin, Leon J. 1984. Not in Our Genes, Pantheon Books, New York, NY. ISBN 0-394-72888-2.

Lewontin, Richard C. 1993. Biology as Ideology: The Doctrine of DNA, Harper Collins, New York, NY. ISBN -13 9780060975197.

Rose, Steven. 1997. Lifelines: Life Beyond the Gene. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN-13 9780195150391.

Sociobiology once inspired much research, buts its relevance is now limited. It opened many questions about animal sociality and cooperation based on kin selection. Yet it implicitly assumed that all behavior reduces to genes, in a simple correspondence. Genetic explanations typically fall short, however, in explaining psychological or social-level phenomena fully. The sociobiology "fad" illustrates the power of the persistent, but misleading assumptions and errors of biological determinism — all well profiled in these books. The co-authored Not in Our Genes is the most comprehensive, and describes powerfully the political context of this doctrine. Lewontin's volume focuses especially on the poverty of conceptualizations of genes that omit developmental contexts. Rose works towards articulating an alternative view that gets beyond the nature/nurture dichotomy.

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