• Cultural images bias views of human morality in a naturalistic perspective.

    bears fighting Many persons conceive evolution as nothing more than a fiercely competitive "struggle for existence." They render nature and culture alike as governed by an unqualified "survival of the fittest." Here, the influence of biological determinism is discernible. However, once one becomes aware of mutualisms between species, reciprocities among individuals within a species, innate sympathies, the potentials of open behavioral programs, social networks of reciprocity, punishments and rewards, image scoring (or reputation), and the role of social contexts in cooperation, Pollauiolo's 'Battle of Ten Naked Men' the view of natural selection as universally "selfish" seems deeply ill informed. In particular, humans establish their own values at a psychological level. They establish their own laws at the social level. Humans are not enslaved by some stereotyped "law of the jungle" (despite the premise of some "reality" television shows!).

    Download supplemental essay
    on the misleading imagery of the phrase "survival of the fittest":
    "A More Fitting Analogy"

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